There was also the cautious resumption of trade and missionary activity in this epoch.
In an agreement was signed with British emissary Henry Burney ; Siam recognized British colonial possessions on the Malay Peninsula and made commercial concessions. They were, however, destroyed, which strengthened the position of Siam in Laos. The Lao-population of the areas west of the Mekong were relocated to Thai provinces in Isan.
The reign of Rama III. A small group of advocates of the takeover of Western technologies and other achievements were opposed by conservative circles, which proposed a stronger isolation instead. When King Mongkut ascended the Siamese throne, he was severely threatened by the neighboring states. The colonial powers of Britain and France had already advanced into territories which originally belonged to the Siamese sphere of influence.
Mongkut and his successor Chulalongkorn Rama V recognized this situation and tried to strengthen the defense forces of Siam by modernization, to absorb Western scientific and technical achievements, thus avoiding colonization. The two monarchs, who ruled in this epoch, were the first with Western formation.
King Mongkut had lived 26 years as a wandering monk and later as an abbot of Wat Bowonniwet Vihara. He was not only skilled in the traditional culture and Buddhist sciences of Siam, but he had also dealt extensively with modern western science, drawing on the knowledge of European missionaries and his correspondence with Western leaders and the Pope.
He was the first Siamese monarch to speak the English language. Under the influence of Britain's achievements in neighboring Burma, King Mongkut signed the so-called " Bowring Treaty ", which abolished the royal foreign trade monopoly, abolished import duties, and granted Britain a most favorable clause.
The Bowring Treaty meant the integration of Siam into the world economy, but at the same time, the royal house lost its most important sources of income. Similar treaties were concluded with all Western powers in the following years, such as in with Prussia and with Austria-Hungary. The survival diplomacy, which Siam had cultivated abroad for a long time, reached its climax in this epoch. The integration into the global economy meant to Siam that it became a sales market for Western industrial goods and an investment for Western capital.
King Mongkut actively promoted the expansion of agricultural land by tax incentives, while the construction of traffic routes canals, roads and later also railways and the influx of Chinese immigrants allowed the agricultural development of new regions. Mongkut's son, Chulalongkorn Rama V , ascended to the throne in He was the first Siamese king to have a full Western education, having been taught by a British governess, Anna Leonowens , whose place in Siamese history has been fictionalised as The King and I.
At first Rama V's reign was dominated by the conservative regent, Somdet Chaophraya Sri Suriwongse , but when the king came of age in he soon took control. He created a Privy Council and a Council of State, a formal court system and budget office. He announced that slavery would be gradually abolished and debt-bondage restricted.
The two kings, Mongkut and Chulalongkorn, witnessed both France and Great Britain continue to expand their colonial territories in Southeast Asia and encircle Siam. From the west, the British conquered India , Burma and Malaya , and from the east, the French conquered South Vietnam , Vietnam and claimed to be "protecting" Cambodia , while Siam lost its extraterritorial rights in these areas to the new conquerors. The construction of Kra Isthmus Canal , which a group of entrepreneurs pursued around the engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps , did not occur after British intervention.
A major event was the Paknam incident , when, on July 13, , French cannon boats headed the Chao Phraya River toward Bangkok and were fired by the Siamese coastal fort, which led to the Franco-Siamese War. In the same year, Siam was compelled to conclude a treaty with France, in which the territory of Laos, located east of the Mekong , was annexed to French Indochina. The French forced Siam to refrain from any influence on its former vassal state.
Siamese Cat Breed Information
In , the Indo-Chinese Union was founded. In , British and French concluded a treaty which made a border between their colonies, and Siam was defined as buffer state. After the Franco-Siamese War , King Chulalongkorn realized the threat of the western colonial powers, and made an intention to accelerated the extensive reforms in the administration, the military, the economy and society.
This thus ended the development of Siam from a traditional feudalist structure based on personal domination and dependencies, whose peripheral areas were only indirectly bound to the central power the King , to a centrally-governed national state with established borders and modern political institutions. The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of defined the modern border between Siam and British Malaya , The treaty stated that Siam relinquished their claims over Kelantan , Terengganu , Kedah and Perlis to Great Britain , which were previously part of the semi-independent Malay sultanates of Pattani and Kedah.
A series of treaties with France fixed the country's current eastern border with Laos and Cambodia. In , and , there were new border corrections in favor of France and Great Britain. When King Chulalongkorn died in , Siam had the borders of today's Thailand. In he was peacefully succeeded by his son Vajiravudh , who reigned as Rama VI. Indeed, one of Siam's problems was the widening gap between the Westernised royal family and upper aristocracy and the rest of the country.
It took another 20 years for Western education to extend to the rest of the bureaucracy and the army. He had studied law and history as the Siamese crown prince in Great Britain. After his ascension to the throne, he forgave important officials for his devoted friends, who were not part of the nobility, and even less qualified than their predecessors, an action which had hitherto been unprecedented in Siam.
In his reign many changes were made, which brought Siam closer to modern countries. For example, the Gregorian Calendar was introduced, all the citizens of his country had to accept a Family names , women were encouraged to wear skirts and long hair fringements and a citizenship law, Principle of the " Ius sanguinis " was adopted. In the Chulalongkorn University was founded and school education was introduced for all 7 to year-olds.
King Vajiravudh was a favor of literature, theater, he translated many foreign literatures into Thai. He created the spiritual foundation for a kind of Thai nationalism , a phenomenon unknown in Siam. He was based on the unity of nation, Buddhism, and kingship, and demanded loyalty from his subjects to all these three institutions. King Vajiravudh also took refuge in an irrational and contradictory anti-Sinicism. As a result of the mass immigration, in contrast to previous immigration waves from China, women and entire families had also come into the country, which meant that the Chinese were less assimilated and retained their cultural independence.
In an article published by King Vajiravudh under a pseudonym, he described the Chinese minority as Jews of the East. King Vajiravudh also created some new social associations, for example, the Wild Tiger Corps , a kind of Scout movement. In , a Palace revolt , plotted by young military officers, tried unsuccessfully to overthrow and replace the king. The members of the conspiracy consisted of military and the navy, the status of the monarchy, had become challenged. Siam's token participation in World War I secured it a seat at the Versailles Peace Conference , and Foreign Minister Devawongse used this opportunity to argue for the repeal of the 19th-century unequal treaties and the restoration of full Siamese sovereignty.
The United States obliged in , while France and Britain delayed until This victory gained the king some popularity, but it was soon undercut by discontent over other issues, such as his extravagance, which became more noticeable when a sharp postwar recession hit Siam in There was also the fact that the king had no son. He obviously preferred the company of men to women a matter which of itself did not much concern Siamese opinion, but which did undermine the stability of the monarchy due to the absence of heirs. Thus when Rama VI died suddenly in , aged only 44, the monarchy was already in a weakened state.
He was succeeded by his younger brother Prajadhipok. By —, Siamese extraterritorial rights were restored a period of five years thereafter. A small circle from the rising bourgeoisie of former students all of whom had completed their studies in Europe - mostly Paris , supported by some military men, seized power from the absolute monarchy on June 24, in an almost nonviolent revolution.
This was also called the " Siamese Revolution ". The group, which called themselves Khana Ratsadon or sponsors , gathered officers, intellectuals and bureaucrats, who represented the idea of the refusal of the absolute monarchy. The Khana Ratsadon installed a constitutional monarchy with Prajadhipok as king at the top - a corresponding constitution was proclaimed on 10 December of the year. On the same day, the experienced and rather conservative lawyer Phraya Manopakorn Nititada , was appointed as first Siamese Prime Minister.
By selecting a non-party head of government, the Khana Ratsadon wanted to avoid the suspicion that the coup had only been carried out in order to come to power itself. However, the overthrow of the monarchy did not lead to free elections, political unions were forbidden. Bureaucracy and the military shared the power in the National Assembly. The constitution was annexed to the monarchist ideology "nation, religion, king" as a fourth pillar.
In the following period it became clear how heterogeneous the group of Khana Ratsadon was, and it fell into several rival wings, especially those of the high officers, the younger officers and the civilians. For the predecessor of the liberal and civilian wing, Pridi Phanomyong it was not done with the mere change of government form. He sought a profound transformation of the country's social and economic system. To this end, he presented an economic plan in January , which became known as a "Yellow Cover Dossier" Thai: Among other things, he proposed the nationalization of farmland, Industrialization by Public Company , general health care and pension insurance.
- Les chevaliers des temps modernes (ESSAI ET DOC) (French Edition).
- Cultural Amnesia: Notes in the Margin of My Time!
- Descendants celebrate Siamese Twins and Thai-US friendship;
- Exercise (Part 4 of “How to Get Well, Then Stay Well for Life”);
- Stephens Squibs - Florida Family Law Case Law Summaries: 2017 Edition;
Fearing that Pridis's liberal wing, who had the majority in the National Assembly, would decide to take a decision, Phraya Manopakorn dissolved the parliament in April, imposed the emergency, and rescinded the constitutional part, which had not yet been a year old.
He imposed a law against Communist activities, which was directed not so much against the almost insignificant Communist Party of Thailand , but rather against the alleged Communist projects Pridis. In his reign, the younger officers of the Khana Ratsadon, chiefly their leader Phibunsongkhram , played a decisive role. Pridi Phanomyong was expelled from the charge of communism, but his economic plan was largely ignored.
Only a few of his ideas, such as the expansion of primary schools and industrialization with state enterprises, were gradually implemented. In , Pridis founded the Thammasat University in Bangkok, which with its liberal self-image has remained a symbol of freedom and democracy. At the same time, the nationalist group led by Phibunsongkhram strengthened in the People's Party, oriented to the totalitarian ideas of Italy, Germany, Japan, but also the "young Turks" Kemal Ataturk. The many unsettled constitutional roles of the crown and the dissatisfaction with Khana Ratsadon's seizure of power culminated in October in a counter-coup, the Boworadet Rebellion staged by royalist factions.
The royalists were led by Prince Boworadet , a grandson of Mongkut and one-time minister of defence, led an armed revolt against the government. He mobilised various provincial garrisons and marched on Bangkok, capturing the Don Muang Aerodrome along the way, this led Siam into small-scale civil War, The prince accused the government of disrespecting the king and promoting communism, and he demanded that the government leaders resign.
He had hoped that some of the garrisons in the Bangkok area would join the revolt, but they remained loyal to the government. Meanwhile, the navy declared itself neutral and left for its bases in the south. After heavy fighting in the northern outskirts of Bangkok, the royalists were finally defeated and Prince Boworadet left for exile in French Indochina. After the Boworadet rebellion, King Prajadhipok abdicated the throne and left Siam never to return, he exiled in Britain, He was replaced as king by his nine-year-old nephew Prince Ananda Mahidol King Rama VIII , who at that time was attending school in Lausanne , Switzerland , the Khana Ratsadon believing that he would be more pliable than Prajadhipok.
After the Boworadet Rebellion, Plaek Pibulsonggram influences over politics increased, to purge the country of his political enemies and rivals one of them just happened to be Phraya Songsuradet. Phraya Songsuradet was a supporter of Phraya Manopakorn and many of his companions were barred from politics for life by Phibun. When Phibulsonggram succeeded Phraya Phahon as Prime Minister of Thailand on the 11 September , there were many resistance to his premiership based on his dictatorial style and cronyism. The military, now led by Major General Phibun as Defence Minister, and the civilian liberals led by Pridi as Foreign Minister, worked together harmoniously for several years, but when Phibun became prime minister in December this co-operation broke down, and military domination became more overt.
In , Phibunsongkhram , an open supporter of Mussolini and Hitler, began moving the government towards the right. By he had issued a series of cultural decrees' ' ratthaniyom ' or Thai cultural mandates, which reflected the desire for social modernization, but also an authoritarian and exaggerated nationalist spirit. This was directed against the ethnic diversity in the country Malay, Chinese, Lao, Shan, etc.
Other decrees urged the citizens only to call themselves "Thai", urged the use of regional dialects and other languages, demanded respect for the flag, the national and royal anthem, and the purchase of Thai products. Chinese names had to be changed into Thai ones, and candidates for the military academy had to prove that they were "pure-blooded" Thais. Finally, the use of Western clothing and customs including hats for men and women, gloves and high heels for women, the man should kiss the woman before he went to work was prescribed.
The defeat of France in Battle of France was the catalyst for Thai leadership to begin an attack on French colonies in Indochina. This began with smaller conflicts in and resulted in the Franco-Thai War in It had to accept a heavy defeat in the sea Battle of Ko Chang , but it dominated on land and in the air. The Empire of Japan , already the dominant power in the Southeast Asian region, took over the role of the mediator. In celebration of the victory, Phibun called himself Than phu nam Thai: After the Franco-Thai war ended, the Thai government declared neutrality.
When the Japanese invaded Thailand on 8 December , a few hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor , Japan demanded the right to move troops across Thailand to the Malayan frontier. Phibun turned crisis into opportunity by ordering an armistice. Shortly thereafter Japan was granted free passage, and on 21 December , Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance. Subsequently, Thailand undertook to "assist" Japan in its war against the Allies. Phibun was forced to order a general ceasefire after just one day of resistance and allow the Japanese armies to use the country as a base for their invasions of Burma and Malaya.
South Africa and New Zealand declared war on Thailand on the same day. Australia followed soon after. Pridi Phanomyong was appointed acting regent for the absent King Ananda Mahidol , while Direk Jayanama , the prominent foreign minister who had advocated continued resistance against the Japanese, was later sent to Tokyo as an ambassador. The United States considered Thailand to be a puppet of Japan and refused to declare war.
When the allies were victorious, the United States blocked British efforts to impose a punitive peace. The rest of Burma was to be under Japanese control. Three Thai infantry and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported by the air force, engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division. Kengtung , the main objective, was captured on 27 May. Renewed offensives in June and November saw the Chinese retreat into Yunnan.
They would be ceded back to Burma in Led from within Thailand from the office of the regent Pridi , it operated freely, often with support from members of the royal family such as Prince Chula Chakrabongse , and members of the government. As Japan neared defeat and the underground anti-Japanese resistance Seri Thai steadily grew in strength, the National Assembly forced out Phibun.
His six-year reign as the military commander-in-chief was at an end. His resignation was partly forced by his two grandiose plans gone awry. One was to relocate the capital from Bangkok to a remote site in the jungle near Phetchabun in north-central Thailand. The other was to build a "Buddhist city" near Saraburi. Announced at a time of severe economic difficulty, these ideas turned many government officers against him.
At war's end, Phibun was put on trial at Allied insistence on charges of having committed war crimes , mainly that of collaborating with the Axis powers. However, he was acquitted amid intense public pressure. Public opinion was still favourable to Phibun, as he was thought to have done his best to protect Thai interests, specifically using alliance with Japan to support the expansion of Thai territory in Malaya and Burma. After Japan's defeat in , British, Indian troops, and US observers landed in September, and during their brief occupation of parts of the country disarmed the Japanese troops.
After repatriating them, the British left in March US support for Thailand blunted Allied demands, although the British demanded reparations in the form of rice sent to Malaya, and the French the return of territories lost in the Franco-Thai War. In exchange for supporting Thailand's admission to the United Nations, the Soviet Union demanded the repeal of the anti-communist legislation.
Later that month Seni Pramoj returned from Washington to succeed Tawee as prime minister. It was the first time in over a decade that the government had been controlled by civilians. But the ensuing factional scramble for power in late created political divisions in the ranks of the civilian leaders that destroyed their potential for making a common stand against the resurgent political force of the military in the post-war years. Moreover, the post-war accommodations with the Allies weakened the civilian government.
As a result of the contributions made to the Allied war effort by the Free Thai Movement, the United States, which unlike the other Allies had never officially been at war with Thailand, refrained from dealing with Thailand as an enemy country in post-war peace negotiations. Before signing a peace treaty, however, Britain demanded war reparations in the form of rice shipments to Malaya. France refused to permit admission of Thailand to the United Nations until Indochinese territories annexed during the war were returned. The Soviet Union insisted on the repeal of anti-communist legislation.
Elections were held in January These were the first elections in which political parties were legal, and Pridi's People's Party and its allies won a majority. In March Pridi became Siam's first democratically elected prime minister. In , after he agreed to hand back the Indochinese territories occupied in as the price for admission to the United Nations , all wartime claims against Siam were dropped and substantial US aid was received.
- The Medical Job Interview: Secrets for Success.
- Did You Know?;
- First Studies for Viola, Op. 86.
In December , the young king Ananda Mahidol had returned to Siam from Europe, but in June he was found shot dead in his bed, under mysterious circumstances. Three palace servants were tried and executed for his murder, although there are significant doubts as to their guilt and the case remains both murky and a highly sensitive topic in Thailand today. The king was succeeded by his younger brother, Bhumibol Adulyadej. In August Pridi was forced to resign amid suspicion that he had been involved in the regicide. Without his leadership, the civilian government foundered, and in November the army, its confidence restored after the debacle of , seized power.
After an interim Khuang-headed government, in April the army brought Phibun back from exile and made him prime minister. Pridi, in turn, was driven into exile, eventually settling in Beijing as a guest of the PRC.
Phibun's return to power coincided with the onset of the Cold War and the establishment of a communist regime in North Vietnam. He soon won the support of the United Nations. Once again political opponents were arrested and tried, and some were executed. During this time, several of the key figures in the wartime Free Thai underground, including Thawin Udom, Thawi Thawethikul, Chan Bunnak, and Tiang Sirikhanth, were eliminated in extra-legal fashion by the Thai police, run by Phibun's ruthless associate Phao Sriyanond.
There were attempted counter-coups by Pridi supporters in , , and , the second leading to heavy fighting between the army and navy before Phibun emerged victorious. In the navy's attempt, popularly known as the Manhattan Coup , Phibun was nearly killed when the ship where he was held hostage was bombed by the pro-government air force. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy, Thailand was ruled by a series of military governments, most prominently led by Phibun, interspersed with brief periods of democracy. Thailand took part in the Korean War. Communist Party of Thailand guerrilla forces operated inside the country from the earlys to They included 12, full-time fighters at the peak of movement, but never posed a serious threat to the state.
By Phibun was losing his leading position in the army to younger rivals led by Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat and General Thanom Kittikachorn , the Sarit's army staged a bloodless coup on 17 September , ending Phibun's career for good. The coup beginning a long tradition of US-backed military regimes in Thailand. Thanom became prime minister until , then yielded his place to Sarit, the real head of the regime. Sarit held power until his death in , when Thanom again took the lead.
The regimes of Sarit and Thanom were strongly supported by the US. Thailand had formally become a US ally in with the formation of the SEATO While the war in Indochina was being fought between the Vietnamese and the French, Thailand disliking both equally stayed aloof, but once it became a war between the US and the Vietnamese communists, Thailand committed itself strongly to the US side, concluding a secret agreement with the US in , sending troops to Vietnam and Laos, and allowing the US to use airbases in the east of the country to conduct its bombing war against North Vietnam.
The Vietnamese retaliated by supporting the Communist Party of Thailand 's insurgency in the north, northeast, and sometimes in the south, where guerrillas co-operated with local discontented Muslims. In the postwar period, Thailand had close relations with the US, which it saw as a protector from communist revolutions in neighboring countries. Agent Orange, a herbicide and defoliant chemical used by the U.
Buried drums were uncovered and confirmed to be Agent Orange in US Vietnam-era veterans whose service involved duty on or near the perimeters of military bases in Thailand anytime between February 28, , and May 7, , may have been exposed to herbicides and may qualify for VA benefits. A declassified US Department of Defense report written in suggests that there was a significant use of herbicides on the fenced-in perimeters of military bases in Thailand to remove foliage that provided cover for enemy forces. The Vietnam War hastened the modernisation and Westernisation of Thai society.
The American presence and the exposure to Western culture that came with it had an effect on almost every aspect of Thai life. Before the late s, full access to Western culture was limited to a highly educated elite in society, but the Vietnam War brought the outside world face to face with large segments of the Thai society as never before. With US dollars pumping up the economy, the service, transportation, and construction industries grew phenomenally as did drug abuse and prostitution. The traditional rural family unit was broken down as more and more rural Thais moved to the city to find new jobs.
This led to a clash of cultures as Thais were exposed to Western ideas about fashion, music, values, and moral standards. The population began to grow explosively as the standard of living rose, and a flood of people began to move from the villages to the cities, and above all to Bangkok. Thailand had 30 million people in , while by the end of the 20th century the population had doubled.
Bangkok's population had grown tenfold since and had tripled since Educational opportunities and exposure to mass media increased during the Vietnam War years. Bright university students learned more about ideas related to Thailand's economic and political systems, resulting in a revival of student activism. The Vietnam War period also saw the growth of the Thai middle class which gradually developed its own identity and consciousness. Economic development did not bring prosperity to all. During the s many of the rural poor felt increasingly dissatisfied with their condition in society and disillusioned by their treatment by the central government in Bangkok.
Efforts by the Thai government to develop poor rural regions often did not have the desired effect in that they contributed to the farmers' awareness of how bad off they really were. It was not always the poorest of the poor who joined the anti-government insurgency. Increased government presence in the rural villages did little to improve the situation. Villagers became subject to increased military and police harassment and bureaucratic corruption.
Villagers often felt betrayed when government promises of development were frequently not fulfilled. By the early s rural discontent had manifested itself into a peasant's activist movement. Student demonstrations had started in and grew in size and numbers in the early s despite the continued ban on political meetings. In June , nine Ramkhamhaeng University students were expelled for publishing an article in a student newspaper that was critical of the government. Shortly after, thousands of students held a protest at the Democracy Monument demanding the re-enrolment of the nine students.
The government ordered the universities to shut, but shortly afterwards allowed the students to be re-enrolled. In October another 13 students were arrested on charges of conspiracy to overthrow the government. This time the student protesters were joined by workers, businessmen, and other ordinary citizens. The demonstrations swelled to several hundred thousand and the issue broadened from the release of the arrested students to demands for a new constitution and the replacement of the current government. On 13 October, the government released the detainees.
Leaders of the demonstrations, among them Seksan Prasertkul , called off the march in accordance with the wishes of the king who was publicly against the democracy movement. In a speech to graduating students, he criticized the pro-democracy movement by telling students to concentrate on their studies and leave politics to their elders [military government]. As the crowds were breaking up the next day, on 14 October, many students found themselves unable to leave because the police blocked the southern route to Rajavithi Road.
Cornered and overwhelmed by the hostile crowd, the police responded with teargas and gunfire. The military was called in, and tanks rolled down Ratchadamnoen Avenue and helicopters fired down at Thammasat University. A number of students commandeered buses and fire engines in an attempt to halt the progress of the tanks by ramming into them.
With chaos on the streets, King Bhumibol opened the gates of Chitralada Palace to the students who were being gunned down by the army. Despite orders from Thanom that the military action be intensified, army commander Kris Sivara had the army withdrawn from the streets. The king condemned the government's inability to handle the demonstrations and ordered Thanom, Praphas, and Narong to leave the country, and notably condemned the students' supposed role as well. An hour later, the king appeared on national television, asking for calm, and announcing that Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn had been replaced with Dr.
Sanya Dharmasakti , a respected law professor, as prime minister. Post has been marked by a struggle to define the political contours of the state. It was won by the king and General Prem Tinsulanonda , who favoured a monarchial constitutional order. The post years have seen a difficult and sometimes bloody transition from military to civilian rule, with several reversals along the way.
The revolution of inaugurated a brief, unstable period of democracy, with military rule being reimposed after the 6 October Massacre. For most of the s, Thailand was ruled by Prem Tinsulanonda , a democratically inclined strongman who restored parliamentary politics. Thereafter the country remained a democracy apart from a brief period of military rule from to He was popular with the urban, suburban, and rural poor for his populist social programs. His rule came under attack from elites who saw danger in his "parliamentary dictatorship".
In mid, Sondhi Limthongkul , a well-known media tycoon, became the foremost Thaksin critic. Eventually, Sondhi and his allies developed the movement into a mass protest and later unified under the name of People's Alliance for Democracy PAD. On 19 September , after the dissolution of parliament, Thaksin became head of a provisional government.
Without meeting much resistance, a military junta overthrew the interim government of Thaksin Shinawatra on 19 September The junta abrogated the constitution, dissolved Parliament and the Constitutional Court, detained and later removed several members of the government, declared martial law , and appointed one of the king's Privy Counselors, General Surayud Chulanont , as the Prime Minister.
The junta later wrote a highly abbreviated interim constitution and appointed a panel to draft a new permanent constitution. The junta also appointed a member legislature, called by some critics a "chamber of generals" while others claimed that it lacks representatives from the poor majority. In this interim constitution draft, the head of the junta was allowed to remove the prime minister at any time. The legislature was not allowed to hold a vote of confidence against the cabinet and the public was not allowed to file comments on bills. Martial law was partially revoked in January The ban on political activities was lifted in July ,  following the 30 May dissolution of the Thai Rak Thai party.
The new constitution was approved by referendum on 19 August, which led to a return to a democratic general election on 23 December Following several court rulings against him in a variety of scandals, and surviving a vote of no confidence, and protesters blockading government buildings and airports, in September , Sundaravej was found guilty of conflict of interest by the Constitutional Court of Thailand due to being host of a TV cooking program ,  and thus, ended his term in office.
As of October , Wongsawat was unable to gain access to his offices, which were occupied by protesters from the People's Alliance for Democracy. On 2 December , Thailand's Constitutional Court in a highly controversial ruling found the Peoples Power Party PPP  guilty of electoral fraud, which led to the dissolution of the party according to the law.
It was later alleged in media reports that at least one member of the judiciary had a telephone conversation with officials working for the Office of the Privy Council and one other person. The phone call was taped and has since circulated on the Internet. In it, the callers discuss finding a way to ensure the ruling PPP party would be disbanded. Accusations of judicial interference were levelled in the media but the recorded call was dismissed as a hoax.
However, in June , supporters of the eventually disbanded PPP were charged with tapping a judge's phone. Immediately following what many media described as a "judicial coup", a senior member of the armed forces met with factions of the governing coalition to get their members to join the opposition and the Democrat Party was able to form a government, a first for the party since The leader of the Democrat Party, and former leader of the opposition, Abhisit Vejjajiva was appointed and sworn-in as the 27th Prime Minister , together with a new cabinet, on 17 December About a year later, a set of new Red Shirts protests resulted in 87 deaths mostly civilian and some military and 1, injured.
This resulted in the army returning fire with rubber bullets and some live ammunition. During the time of the Red Shirt protests against the government, there were numerous grenade and bomb attacks against government offices and the homes of government officials.
Gas grenades were fired at Yellow Shirt protesters who were protesting against the Red Shirts and in favour of the government, by unknown gunmen killing one pro-government protester, the government stated that the Red Shirts were firing the weapons at civilians. On 3 July , the opposition Pheu Thai Party , led by Yingluck Shinawatra the youngest sister of Thaksin Shinawatra , won the general election by a landslide seats in the House of Representatives , out of She had never previously been involved in politics, Pheu Thai campaigning for her with the slogan "Thaksin thinks, Pheu Thai acts".
Yingluck was the nation's first female prime minister and her role was officially endorsed in a ceremony presided over by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Protests recommenced in late , as a broad alliance of protesters, led by former opposition deputy leader Suthep Thaugsuban , demanded an end to the Thaksin regime. A blanket amnesty for people involved in the protests, altered at the last minute to include all political crimes, including all convictions against Thaksin, triggered a mass show of discontent, with numbers variously estimated between 98, the police and , an aerial photo survey done by the Bangkok Post , taking to the streets.
The Senate was urged to reject the bill to quell the reaction, but the measure failed. A newly named group, the People's Democratic Reform Committee PDRC along with allied groups, escalated the pressure, with the opposition Democrat party resigning en masse to create a parliamentary vacuum. Protesters demand variously evolved as the movement's numbers grew, extending a number of deadlines and demands that became increasingly unreasonable or unrealistic, yet attracting a groundswell of support.
In response to the protests, Yingluck dissolved parliament on 9 December and proposed a new election for 2 February , a date that was later approved by the election commission. Yingluck insisted that she would continue her duties until the scheduled election in February , urging the protesters to accept her proposal: I have backed down to the point where I don't know how to back down any further. In response to the Electoral Commission EC 's registration process for party-list candidates—for the scheduled election in February —anti-government protesters marched to the Thai-Japanese sports stadium, the venue of the registration process, on 22 December Suthep and the PDRC led the protest, which security forces claimed that approximately , protesters joined.
Yingluck and the Pheu Thai Party reiterated their election plan and anticipated presenting a list of party-list candidates to the EC. On 7 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that Yingluck would have to step down as the prime minister as she was deemed to have abused her power in transferring a high-level government official.
On 20 May the Thai army declared martial law and began to deploy troops in the capital, denying that it was a coup attempt. Martial law was declared formally ended on 1 April The ruling junta led by Prayuth Chan-o-cha promised to hold new elections, but wants to enact a new constitution before the elections are held. An initial draft constitution was rejected by government officials in A national referendum, the first since the coup, on a newly drafted constitution was held on 7 August On the night of 1 December , the fiftieth day after the death of Bhumibol, Regent Prem Tinsulanonda led the heads of the country's three branches of government to an audience with Vajiralongkorn to invite him to ascend to the throne as the tenth king of the Chakri dynasty.
Prime Ministers of Thailand. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. Samut Songkhram Governor Kanchantra Tunsatien expressed hope that the festival would promote awareness about the city globally. During the cultural trip, the descendants visited the studio of respected sculptor Sa-ngad Jaiprom, who created their statue in The sculptor gave them a small sculpture of Chang and Eng made from homemade plaster and painted with gold.
The family was impressed by his studio display of drawings of the twins. Craver compared portraits of her mother on her mobile phone to Eng, her great-great grandfather. I admire them more because of the journey that we took together to get here. The twins were able to get to the United States and be very successful.